The symptoms of worm infection are different. For example, dyspeptic disorders most often develop - nausea, vomiting, pain and bloating in the abdomen. Some patients do not pay attention to the signs until they develop a rash that cannot be removed with conventional medications. Helminthic invasion is often accompanied by symptoms similar to other diseases and allergies. Therefore, timely diagnosis is required.
Worm infection in humans
Most helminths spread to the human body by consuming unwashed fruits and vegetables. After spreading throughout the body, organ damage occurs, causing serious illness. Pathologies of the liver, kidneys, heart, digestive tract, gallbladder, and even oncology can develop.
A common characteristic symptom is skin irritation, rash. But a person may not pay attention to that for years, while the pathology is developing, although it is enough to take anthelmintic drugs in the course in order to fully recover.
Methods of infection
There are 4 ways worms spread to the human body:
- Geohelminthiasis. The parasite enters through soil that remains on unwashed fruits and vegetables and spreads into the water. Also, infection is possible with poor hand washing after working with the ground. Contact with the ground is often observed in animals that come to the house with dirty paws. Eggs, larvae, adults can enter the human body.
- Contact. In the body of the host, the female lays 4-5 thousand eggs in one day. They can be transmitted from an infected person to other people after contact, especially at home. Eggs or adults are spread through bedding, towels, personal hygiene items. It is enough that the infected person does not wash his hands. This path is most often characterized by pinworms, worms.
- Biohelminthiasis. Parasites are stored in the bodies of living and dead animals, fish. After that, the person can eat them. Preservation of parasites is observed by insufficient heat treatment.
- Insect bites. In this way, helminth eggs of the smallest sizes are transferred.
Of all the forms of helminths, the infection most often occurs by swallowing eggs and larvae. They can be found in soil, water, on an infected person, in raw meat. It is important not only to wash food and hands, but also to always use heat treatment of food.
Symptoms of helminthiasis
The symptoms of the infection vary depending on the stage of the disease.The most common symptoms are:
- weight loss, weight loss;
- pale skin;
- itching in the anus.
The symptoms are similar to other pathologies, so the patient can use the wrong methods of therapy. Symptoms can vary depending on the area of the body affected. For example, liver damage causes yellowing of the skin.
The penetration of pathogens into the digestive tract develops the following symptoms:
- violation of the formation of fecal masses (constipation, diarrhea);
- itching in the anus;
- dyspeptic disorders - nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, heartburn;
- colic in the intestines;
- bloating, followed by swelling;
- periodic changes in body weight from a greater to a lesser degree.
In the early stages, the symptoms are almost invisible. The more worms damage the internal organs, the more actively the symptoms develop. Some parasites are able to secrete waste products that are foreign to the body. This leads to severe intoxication and diarrhea. Large worms spread through the intestines, preventing the passage of feces. This causes constipation.
Due to the release of worm waste products, the person is subjected to severe intoxication. Due to that, weakness, weakness, dyspeptic disorders develop.
Suppression of immunity
When a person consumes food, nutrients enter the body and are distributed throughout the tissues.Helminths eat them, so the patient develops the following deviations:
- metabolic disease;
- suppression of the immune system.
A person often begins to get sick from viral, acting, fungal diseases. Even with the use of multivitamin preparations, hypovitaminosis will not be eliminated until the anthelmintic treatment is completed.
Some types of helminths are capable of damaging the peripheral tissues of the nervous system, crossing the blood-brain barrier. These properties are possessed by the products of their intoxication.Damage to the nervous system causes the following symptoms:
- constant forgetfulness, poor memory;
- headache to migraine;
- stress, neurosis, depression;
- increased fatigue.
Patient behavior changes. He comes into conflict with the people around him, he forgets his acquaintances. Gradually the symptoms supplement, the body temperature rises by more than 39 degrees.
Chronic hypovitaminosis leads to chronic fatigue syndrome. Gradually, the level of red blood cells decreases, causing anemia. The person becomes irritable and aggressive.
Even in the initial stages, the deepest parts of the respiratory tract can be damaged.The following pathologies develop:
- tracheitis, bronchitis;
- emphysema, bronchial asthma, pneumonia.
Even frequent rhinitis and pharyngitis can be a sign of helminthic invasion.
In order for the epidermis to develop normally, a sufficient amount of vitamins, trace elements and minerals is needed. Worm infestation leads to hypovitaminosis, so the quality of the skin suffers.The following deviations occur:
- acne, acne, rash;
- itching, peeling, redness of the epidermis;
- peeling nail plate.
Even the most severe skin pathologies can develop:
- urticaria, dermatitis;
- papilloma, seborrhea;
- allergic reaction.
The doctor and the patient may not immediately understand why medications do not help with these pathologies. The quality of the skin significantly deteriorates, it becomes pale, wrinkles appear. Turgor decreases, ie surface tension.
Signs of infection depending on the type of helminth
The severity of the symptoms depends on the following factors:
- number of parasites in the body;
- degree of immune activity;
- localization of parasites;
- type of parasite.
Some helminths can stay in the host for a long time without causing negative symptoms. Other people can instantly worsen their health, damage their liver. For example, the roundworm.
Ascaris damages many internal organs, causing certain symptoms, similar to other diseases.The following symptoms may occur:
- prolonged cough;
- how tired;
- bronchitis, pneumonia.
First, the digestive tract is damaged, so hypovitaminosis and metabolic disorders are created. The human body is exhausted. Gradually, signs of damage to the gastrointestinal tract are formed:
- yellowing of the skin;
- bowel obstruction.
The spread of worms through the blood-brain barrier causes severe headaches, migraines and depression.
Schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, hookworm disease, difilobotriosis
Parasites cause the following deviations:
- lack of nutrients and vitamins;
- decreased metabolism, which causes a change in body weight;
- intestinal dysbiosis.
Gradually, hypovitaminosis turns into beriberi, which leads to significant depletion of the organism. The person's skin fades, can often faint, which is typical of anemia.
Pinworms are characterized by the deposition of eggs in the anus, this process usually occurs at night. Therefore, the person is worried about severe itching in the anus. The disease is characterized by periodic remission, so sometimes the itching stops. If left untreated, helminthic invasion becomes extensive, so the itching worries the patient at any time of the day.
The parasite penetrates into any part of the body, producing a large amount of toxins. This leads to constant cramps, cramps, muscle aches. Due to damage to the cardiovascular system, edema occurs. With severe intoxication, body temperature rises.
Fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis
This is one of the most dangerous helminths that leads to the following lesions:
- liver problems with jaundice;
- intestinal obstruction, dyspeptic disorders when spreading along the gastrointestinal tract.
Gradually, the patient develops hepatosplenomegaly.
Parasites actively spread through the genitourinary system. Due to the chronic inflammatory process, mucosal damage occurs. Therefore, when urinating, a person detects red urine, which indicates the development of a bleeding focus.
In the human body, helminths can damage different types of organs:
- hairy - large intestine;
- ascaris, tapeworm, hookworm - small intestine;
- roundworms - liver.
Depending on the damaged organs, different symptoms are formed:
- liver - jaundice, pain in the right hypochondrium, hepatitis;
- respiratory tract - trachea, bronchitis, pneumonia;
- brain - convulsions, paresthesias, fainting.
It is necessary to simultaneously treat the disease (hepatitis, colitis), eliminate helminths.
Scientists count a huge number of parasites that are found in the human body. There are more than 100 in total.But more often, doctors distinguish infection by the following parasites:
- dwarf tapeworm;
In order to determine the exact type of pathogen and prescribe the right treatment, it is necessary to perform laboratory and instrumental diagnostics. First, the patient is examined by a therapist, then the feces are coprogrammed, detecting worm eggs. Therapists and infectious disease specialists usually recommend that you undergo a study twice, because even in the presence of infection, eggs and larvae may not be detected.
Laboratory blood test is recommended for patients at risk:
- the presence of pets;
- work related to animals;
- medical workers;
- employees in children's educational institutions;
- food workers.
Attention! In order to accurately identify helminths and their products of intoxication, it is recommended to perform an enzyme immunosorbent test. It is performed in municipal clinics and hospitals, as well as in private laboratories.
It is forbidden to choose helminth medications on your own, because they strongly affect the condition of the liver and kidneys. It is recommended to undergo an initial examination, after which certain medications are prescribed. The dosage is chosen depending on the health condition, age, body weight of the person.
The following methods of drug administration are selected:
- tablets - mild or moderate helminthiasis;
- injections, infusions - severe disease, the creation of excessive numbers of parasites, severe damage to the digestive tract.
Many drugs can only work in adults. If there is a risk of eggs and larvae, it is better to undergo another course of therapy or choose a stronger drug.
The table shows the optimal medications for treatment.
|mebendazole||It completely kills pinworms, hookworms, whips, tapeworms and other parasites|
|Pyrantela pamoate||The substance destroys roundworms, effective in enterobiosis and necatorosis|
|Levamisole hydrochloride||Destroys roundworms and hookworm|
|Pirvinia embonate||Helps completely cure enterobiasis|
|Albendazole||It helps to destroy most of the elements in the adult or larvae phase.|
Initially, it is recommended to identify the exact pathogen, and only then apply the drug. This will increase the chances of recovery without negatively affecting the body.
To prevent parasites from entering the body, use prevention rules:
- washing hands upon arrival home, during the day, after contact with animals;
- use of personal hygiene products, dishes by only one person;
- taking multivitamins, giving up bad habits to strengthen the immune system;
- thorough washing of fruits and vegetables, heat treatment of meat and fish;
- use of quality drinking water from verified sources.
Helminths can be found in many products, so it is impossible to exclude the risk of their spreading into the body. Anyone can be infected with a parasite without even knowing it. It can be transmitted from one family member to another through household contact. Therefore, it is necessary to apply preventive measures on a daily basis.
It is important to take good care of the animals. They need to be monitored periodically, given parasite medications to reduce the risk of helminth infection.
If a person suspects that they are accused of helminths, it is better to take a laboratory test in time. Repeat twice to avoid a false negative test. Self-medication is prohibited. They are all strong, they have a negative effect on the liver. Only a doctor will be able to choose the optimal anthelmintic with the right dose. If timely treatment is carried out, it is possible to prevent the development of serious diseases, immunodeficiency.