Worm infestation belongs to a common group of diseases among humans and animals. This is caused by the penetration into the body of various worms, of which there are more than three hundred species in our time. The parasites are localized mainly in the intestines and liver, but some species can penetrate the lungs, heart, brain and other vital organs, which can lead to very serious consequences. It is important to detect the presence of helminths in the body as early as possible and take measures to eliminate them in order to avoid health problems. After all, this disease can have many consequences, up to death. But it is quite difficult to determine the presence of helminthic invasion in the body, because the symptoms are similar to other diseases and it is difficult to say exactly which infection attacks the body. It is important to understand what to look for when contacting a parasitologist.
Types of helminths dangerous to humans
Worms that pose a danger to humans are divided into two groups:
- Cavities - pinworms, roundworms, whips, tapeworms and other parasites that live in the gut.
- Tissues - echinococcosis, paragonimiosis, cysticercosis and other types of parasites that can spread to all important internal organs and affect them.
The following types of helminthic invasions are most often diagnosed in the human body: enterobiasis, ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis.
Methods of worm infection
There are many ways in which parasite larvae enter the body, and the main ones can be distinguished:
- Contact - larvae are transmitted from person to person.
- Through insect bites.
- Through the country
- Through the water.
- With dust particles.
- From food that is not sufficiently heat-treated.
The first manifestations of worms in the body
When they enter the human body, worms do not manifest immediately. That is the main problem. The first signs of helminthic invasion may appear only after two weeks. This includes:
- increased body temperature;
- skin rash;
- aching pain in the abdomen;
- loss of appetite;
- occurrence of headache;
- bowel dysfunction.
If, after the first signs, you consult a doctor in time, many problems can be avoided.
Symptoms of the presence of worms in the human body
Once in the body, parasites eat most of the nutrients and vitamins, which significantly affects well-being.
Symptoms of helminthic invasion in adults:
- the presence of allergies;
- acne and ulcers;
- annoying cough;
- reduced immunity;
- depressed and irritable state;
- joint pain;
- digestive system disorders.
Symptoms of lung worm infection
Pulmonary infection with helminths can be asymptomatic for several years. After penetrating the human body, parasites actively multiply, when a significant amount is reached, symptoms such as:
- weakness and lack of strength;
- wet cough;
- chest pain and discomfort;
- nausea and vomiting;
- decreased appetite and weight loss.
Adhesions are formed where parasites enter the lungs, and the shape of the lungs changes over time. Parasites cause diseases such as pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and pleurisy. In an advanced case, it is probably fatal.
The main signs of intestinal helminthiasis
Most often, the habitat of worms in the human body are the intestines. The first symptoms appear when helminths begin to actively reproduce:
- lack of strength and fatigue;
- itching in the anus;
- dermatitis and eczema of the skin.
Parasites poison the body with the products of their vital activity, and all this leads to a general state of weakness and apathy.
Symptoms of the presence of worms in the stomach
This place is also a favorite for worms, the symptoms are as follows:
- frequent indigestion, constipation can suddenly turn into diarrhea;
- abdominal and navel pain;
- decreased appetite;
- constant feeling of hunger;
- gnashing of teeth;
Signs of heartworm infection
This type of parasite occurs in humans due to insect bites. There are two forms of heartworm disease - ocular and cutaneous:
- The skin form is the most common and can appear from mosquito bites, a small seal is formed at that place, which gradually migrates under the skin, causing discomfort. If you do not seek qualified help in time, severe redness and pain appear at the site of the lesion.
- In the eye form, the parasite lives under the skin of the eyelids and there is a possibility of its penetration into the eyeball. Symptoms include redness and swelling, conjunctivitis and an itchy feeling in the affected area, and in addition the person constantly feels a foreign body in the eye. All this is accompanied by insomnia, increased nervousness and general weakness.
Symptoms of helminth in the throat
The throat is one of the most sensitive places in the human body. When it becomes inflamed, we immediately feel pain and discomfort, but sometimes you can feel a strong tickling and stirring in the throat, which is often caused by helminths. It is worth noting that parasites can not live in the throat, because this is not a favorable habitat for them. It happens that the parasites that develop in the digestive system grow to such a size that they enter the throat through the esophagus, which is usually accompanied by suffocation and a strong cough.
Symptoms of helminthic brain invasion
Brain damage usually occurs through the nasal passages. When they enter the brain, helminths infect the cortical center, destroy brain cells and actively multiply. Instead of dead cells, dead tissues remain, which leads to inflammatory processes in the brain. If the patient is not given emergency medical care, he can die within two weeks.
- severe headache;
Symptoms of helminthic invasion in human blood
Blood is the habitat of several types of helminths, which have a very harmful effect on the body. Symptoms include:
- fever attacks;
- joint pain;
- numbness of the limbs;
- enlargement of lymph nodes.
How to recognize helminthic invasion by skin rash
One of the main manifestations of the presence of helminths is a strong deterioration of the skin and the appearance of various rashes on it. This is due to the toxic substances released by the parasites. The most characteristic signs are the following:
- severe itching;
- allergic rhinitis;
- the appearance of papillomas;
- brittle nails;
- increased hair loss;
- acne and furunculosis.
But you should not attribute all the skin manifestations of the presence of worms in the body, the reasons may be different and only a dermatologist, after research, will be able to determine them.
Symptoms of helminthiasis in the form of metabolic disorders
Deficiencies in metabolic processes in the body should also warn. If there is a sudden decrease or increase in body weight, anemia or hypovitaminosis with a normal diet, parasite infection should be considered. Rapid weight loss may be due to the fact that worms absorb all the nutrients a person consumes. Weight gain can be caused by toxic substances secreted by helminths, and in response to them the body needs more food to remove toxins.
Symptoms from the immune system
Since parasites eat all the nutrients and vitamins that enter the body, there is a strong suppression of the immune system and the person becomes susceptible to all infectious diseases and inflammatory processes of various organs. Chronic diseases are also on the rise.
On the part of the nervous system, helminthic invasion is expressed by the following symptoms:
- increased fatigue;
- memory impairment;
- depressed state;
- reduced activity and performance.
Signs of infection in children
Note! The presence of pinworms and ascaris is most commonly diagnosed in children.
Worm infestation in children has the following symptoms:
- poor appetite;
- pale facial skin;
- dark circles under the eyes;
- poor sleep, gnashing of teeth in sleep;
- headache, dizziness;
- general state of lethargy and weakness;
- the presence of worms in the child's stool;
- itching in the anus;
- large amount of saliva in the mouth;
- lethargy and fatigue;
- increase in body temperature for no reason;
- allergic reactions, dermatitis, urticaria;
- inflammatory processes in the genitals;
- annoying cough;
- nausea and vomiting;
- frequent colds.
Tip! If your baby has three or more symptoms, see a doctor right away. Often, even a stool study does not give accurate results, so it will be most effective to undergo a comprehensive examination.
It is important to understand that the small number of adult helminths in the body gives almost no symptoms of helminthic invasion in adults and children. The infection can be confirmed or denied only by passing laboratory tests and studies prescribed by a parasitologist on an individual basis.
Diagnosis of helminthiasis
Since the body of parasites can be treated only after they are detected, and the symptoms of the infection are similar to those of other diseases, a competent diagnosis is important. Her methods include:
- Serological analysis - detection of antibodies to helminths in the blood;
- Faecal analysis - helps to recognize the presence of larvae and fragments of adult individuals;
- Coprological examination - a study of scraping taken near the anus;
- Check for dysbacteriosis;
- CT scanner;
It is easy to get infected with worms, but difficult to treat, especially chronic forms of helminthic invasion. The course of treatment includes antiparasitic drugs, immunomodulators and sorbents. The therapy regimen is prescribed only by a doctor, self-medication can be not only useless, but also dangerous.
Preventive measures against helminth infection
Prevention of helminthic invasions is extremely important for children and adults, by following certain rules, you can significantly reduce the chances of parasite infection. The presence of helminthic invasion in humans, as a rule, occurs due to lack of basic hygiene:
- be sure to wash your hands before using any food, when returning home from the street, after contact with animals;
- well, preferably using special products, wash fruits and vegetables before meals or roast them with boiling water;
- drink only purified or boiled water;
- try to avoid insect bites;
- fish, meat and other similar products are subjected to thorough heat treatment;
- make sure the child's nails are cut short;
- periodically wash children's toys with special products;
- be sure to cook items that the patient has used for five minutes;
- twice a year to examine the child and adult for the presence of helminths;
- weaning the child from taking hands and other objects in the mouth, especially those that have been in contact with the ground.
Implementing these measures is not difficult. Their respect will be enough to protect yourself and your children from parasites as much as possible. If something is missed and symptoms of helminthic invasion begin to appear, treatment should be started immediately to prevent complications.